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Except cowboys. That was last issue. Trapped within the most secure superhuman penal colony ever devised, hunted by the most dangerous teenaged killing machine ever incarcerated, the Young Avengers and the Runaways might even stand a chance of survival-if they could put aside their mutual dislike for just one minute! Volume 4 - 1st printing. Now that the evil Pride is gone, nearly every bad guy in the Marvel Universe is trying to fill the power vacuum in Los Angeles, and the Runaways are the only heroes who can stop them! Plus: What does a mysterious new team of young heroes want with the Runaways, and which fan-favorite Marvel characters are part of this group?
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Cover by Humberto Ramos. The Runaways' adventures conclude! Soldiers from Karolina's home planet arrive, demanding that she be handed over. Squabbling over the best course to take, the Runaways fracture. Can they face the alien threat when they can't face one another? Meanwhile, a DJ creates a mystical song that transforms anyone with plastic surgery into an obedient zombie. And when a mysterious airplane crash takes a Runaway's life, the team's mourning is cut short by armed troops, dispatched to retrieve the wreckage.
But an ominous figure from the group's past has returned to confront them! Plus: Nico in solo action! And what if the Runaways became the Young Avengers? Softcover, pages, full color. Art by Andres Genolet.
Cover by Kris Anka. The Runaways are in disarray! The teen team survived the events of "That Was Yesterday" - but the fallout from that epic adventure is still very much being felt! Alex Wilder walks away from the Runaways - but will someone actually go with him?! We apply these concepts in the case of lightning stepped leaders during the stage of negative corona flash. The computation of electric field produced by stepped leaders demonstrates for the first time that those energetic electrons are capable of further acceleration up to the MeV energies.
Moreover, the flux of runaway electrons produced by streamers suggests that stepped leaders produce a considerable number of energetic electrons, which is in agreement with the number of energetic photons observed from satellites in terrestrial gamma ray flashes TGFs. In particular, Stanley et al. In recent years, the thermal runaway electron process, accelerating cold electrons to high energies by extremely high electric fields [e. In fact, it has been found that TGFs observed from satellites cannot be produced by relativistic runaway electron avalanches originating from background radiation or extensive cosmic ray air showers alone [ Dwyer , ].
However, the fluxes of runaway electrons from lightning leaders have been calculated to be insufficient to fully explain the measured intensities of TGFs from space, and further amplification from relativistic runaway breakdown has been invoked [e. The ability of streamer tip fields to generate runaway electrons was identified and discussed in the literature over two decades ago [ Babich , and references therein], and a new insight on this phenomenon has been given by recent laboratory experiments [ Dwyer , ; Rahman et al. Although the exact mechanism providing electrons with the required energy to run away in electric fields typical of the streamer zone of negative leaders has not yet been understood, it has been proposed that with total potential differences on the order of tens of MV available from lightning leaders, during a highly transient negative corona flash stage of the development of negative stepped leader, runaway electrons ejected from streamer tips near the leader head can be further accelerated to energies of several tens of MeVs, depending on particular magnitude of the leader head potential [ Moss et al.
Moreover, the current theories of transient luminous events occurring above cloud tops and termed blue and gigantic jets generally favor a phenomenological link between jet discharges and streamer zones of lightning leaders [ Krehbiel et al. This mechanism has been further supported by recent analysis indicating that peak fields in gigantic jets derived from spectrophotometric measurements [ Kuo et al. This potential distribution is therefore crucial for possibility of further acceleration of runaway electrons in the electric field produced by the lightning leaders.
We also show that the strength of the fluxes of runaway electrons emitted from streamers during the negative corona flash stage of negative leader propagation is consistent with that required to produce TGFs. Although these potential differences are readily available in the Earth's natural environment, the high field regions of positive and negative lightning leaders normally are shielded by their respective streamer zones that prevent direct production and acceleration of thermal runaway electrons to MeV energies.
The high fields in the vicinity of leader tips can only exist for stepped leaders of negative polarity during the very transient negative corona flash stage of their development. As will be demonstrated below in this paper these high fields are still much lower than is required for thermal electron runaway phenomena. During the negative corona flash stage the high fields capable of driving runaway electrons can only be realized in relatively compact region of space in streamer heads.
Due to the streamer exponential expansion and the related growth of potential differences in the streamer head mentioned above, the individual streamer heads are capable of accelerating runaway electrons to energies up to keV. These electrons are then capable of further acceleration and harvesting of the available potential energy tens of MeV in the leader tip. As will be demonstrated by results of the present work, the runaway electrons created in streamers at near ground air pressures can gain keV energy in very compact regions of space on the order one centimeter.
We quantify the exponentially increasing potential differences in streamers by numerical simulations in section 3. In fact, it has been demonstrated that the length of the streamer is proportional to its velocity [ Vitello et al. In a number of works, the radius of the streamer has been demonstrated to expand exponentially as well [ Naidis , ; Kulikovsky , a , b ; Babaeva and Naidis , ; Kyuregyan , ; Liu et al.
Therefore, under these conditions, one expects the electric potential differences, or drops, in the streamer head to increase exponentially as well.
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Figure 1 clearly shows the expansion of the streamer as it propagates in the simulation domain. The purpose of this section is to define and describe electric potential distributions in streamers on a conceptual level.
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The full details of the streamer model used to produce results in Figures 1 and 2 will be given in subsequent section 3. The negative streamer represented in Figure 2 is generated at ground pressure in an electrode gap of 3 cm. The maximum electric field appears right at the end of this zone. Note that a similar relation to equation 2 has been established by Kulikovsky [a]. Despite the simplicity of the relations described above, we have observed that they accurately describe the potential drops in actual simulated streamers during their expansion.
When the streamer head gets close to the electrode, the relation 6 should be refined by including contribution from the image charges:. This growth can be linked to the fact that electric field in the streamer body is lower than the ambient applied electric field as visually manifested in Figure 2a by smaller potential gradient in the streamer body in comparison with gradient of the Laplacian potential.
In the same vein, the well developed streamers that form in a high field and then enter a region with applied field lower than the stability field very quickly decelerate and cease existence [ Babaeva and Naidis , ]. In this study, we consider the streamer propagation as purely axisymmetric. The transport and source parameters are taken from Morrow and Lowke . The streamer head region being defined, we obtain the potential drops directly by computing differences of potential in numerical simulation results.
The simulation results show that after an initial phase of formation, the streamer enters a continuous phase of exponential expansion. We note that similar results were already obtained for positive streamers by Kulikovsky [a]. This demonstrates that the expansion of the streamer is homothetic. Moreover, the streamer length also grows exponentially in time with the same rate as R s. Note that this effect is responsible for the characteristic expanding shapes of long streamers reported in Figure 1 of the present paper and by Liu et al.
Having considered relations 3 and 6 , this demonstrates the slow variation of the peak electric field in the streamer head. The propagation of the streamer discharge requires production of electrons downstream the streamer head. These electrons are believed to be produced by photoionization [e.
While the streamer expands exponentially, the length scale of photoionization, which is related to the absorption length of photons by oxygen molecules, remains constant. When the radius of the streamer reaches the order of magnitude of this UV photons absorption characteristic length, photoelectrons can no longer be created in front of the streamer head and the streamer can no longer propagate, finally leading to the branching of the streamer [ Liu and Pasko , ]. This effect of maximum radius before branching has been recently observed for positive sprite streamers along with the increase of the electric field and related optical output from the streamer head at the moment immediately preceding branching [ McHarg et al.
The maximum radius corresponding to negative streamers is believed to be much greater than in the positive streamer case [ Liu and Pasko , ].
We note, however, that due to collisions with air molecules, even runaway electrons, for which the average friction force is reduced, cannot convert all of this potential energy into kinetic energy. For the purpose of understanding the impact of the risetime of the applied voltage on the streamer dynamics, we have run simulations with applied voltages increasing in time.
In the general case of streamer simulations, the applied voltage defines the ambient Laplacian field in which the streamer propagates see section 3. In the particular study of the formation of streamer zones of negative leaders, this applied voltage corresponds to the electric potential generated by the leader during the negative corona flashes. We have observed that although the electric field in the streamer channel is not significantly affected by the variation of applied voltage, the electric field in the streamer head increases with the reduction in risetime of the applied voltage.
By itself, this temporal variation of the applied voltage can make the electric field in the streamer head greater than the threshold for production of thermal runaway electrons without invoking the effect of relative increase of streamer head radius in comparison with photoionization length discussed above.
Thus, we consider the potential differences in streamers given by the approach discussed in the previous paragraph as a good estimate of the potential differences in streamers after exponential expansion at the moment of production of energetic electrons. We emphasize that the exact relative contributions of the risetime of applied field and the expansion of the streamer head in comparison with the photoionization range to the production of a high field in the streamer head are not known and should be quantified in a separate dedicated investigation.
The knowledge of this differential cross section allows for obtaining the energy of the secondary electrons [e. The scattering angles of primary and secondary electrons are then obtained from the relativistic equations of conservation of momentum and energy considering than the newly formed ion is static. The scattering angles of any other collision than ionization are calculated from the differential cross sections documented by Shyn et al. For higher energies, we use an analytical modified Rutherford differential cross section [ Moss et al.
Cosmology with varying scales and couplings - Wetterich, C.