All members provide input and make recom- mendations to the staff and consultants. The Committee members help disseminate infor- mation on studies to the community and aviation industry, as wells as solicit input from these groups. All Advisory Committee meetings that occurred during the ANZ update included at least a portion of the session in an open workshop format to permit one-on-one dialogue with all inter- ested parties. All Advisory Committee meetings were advertised using email.
Value of State Level Regulations There is no doubt about the importance of having this program mandated by the state legis- lature and codified in the Annotated Code of Maryland. In essence, these laws give some author- ity to the airport operator the state - MAA over local land use. A small airport that expects to support increasing operations or that may wish to protect its airspace for possible future procedures, such as precision approaches, could benefit from state level legislative mandates by gaining cooperation from surrounding jurisdictions to identify and modify or prevent potential noncompatible development proposals.
Additionally, airports may not have the staff or resources to stay abreast of either development proposals or airspace obstruction requirements.
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Additional funding may be the only way to be adequately informed to take actions that prevent loss of future airport potential. Development Outside the ANZ Despite what must be considered one of the most comprehensive noise and land use compat- ibility programs in the United States, there remain some issues. For example, there are several very large multifamily, semi detached and single-family communities developing a few miles from the Airport. In when the projects were in the planning stages, MAA notified the county and the developers that the residents would be subjected to aircraft noise and recommended that soundproofing techniques be incorporated in the construction standards.
There are now residents in these homes and BWI is receiving complaints. MAA can only advise the residents that the developers were informed of the noise issues. The MAA has since sent follow-up letters to the developers indicating that residents are complaining and again recom- mending that soundproofing be included in the construction. One obvious conclusion is that compatibility criteria extending below 65 DNL should be considered. In one case, the FAA agreed that a proposed struc- ture penetrated Part 77 surfaces.
In another situation, one FAA office said a particular property could be constructed because it did not penetrate the surface and another office said MAA was required to meet a standard. The property was approved. The general consensus at MAA is that the resale assurance is inappropriate. It gives the former owner money, provides the new owner with no soundproofing and no recourse because the avigation easement stays with the house. Disclosures have been tried, but the only one that the realtors would accept is a general state- ment in the purchase and sale contract that includes noise along with the other consumer warn- ings about lead paint, flood plain, etc.
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The disclosure is general and essentially warns that if the property is near an airport, the buyer should review an airport noise zone map if one is available. Additionally, when someone purchases a house that is a longer drive from the airport, they generally do not expect to hear aircraft noise. However, many noise complaints result when the house is only a mile or two by air and under arrival corridors.
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For their continued growth, it is important to continue interactions with surrounding jurisdictions and communities. While complaints continue, they are mainly from areas that are within geo- graphic areas at levels below the 65 DNL noise threshold, consequently, little more can be done for these residents. KAPA is also used by Flight for Life and other medical flights, law enforcement, news media, flight schools, flying clubs, air charter services, aircraft sales services, and aircraft maintenance services. KAPA has no scheduled commercial flights. In , KAPA accommodated , aircraft operations.
Although the Airport and customs office are open on a hour basis, most of the traffic is concentrated in the daytime hours. KAPA has three run- ways: two parallel runways, one measuring 10, feet in length and the other 7, feet; and one cross-wind runway with a length of 4, feet. There is one instrument landing system ILS approach, from the south.
The airport staff reported having had some limited discussions about adding an ILS approach for the cross-wind runway, but has not determined any timeline for that upgrade. The crosswind runway and first air traffic control tower were added in Centennial Airport. Operational activity quickly exceeded , landing and take-offs.
In , the county decided to establish a separate Arapahoe County Public Airport Authority, with its own board of commissioners, in order to simplify bond financing. In , a new parallel runway was com- pleted, as wells as an extension of the primary runway and taxiway improvements. As Stapleton Airport in Denver became more congested over time, many private jets relocated to KAPA for convenience and to avoid potential scheduling conflicts with commercial carriers.
By , Centennial Airport was selling more fuel to general aviation aircraft than Stapleton. By this time, KAPA was no longer on the out- skirts of the metro area. The surrounding communities had expanded as nonresidential and res- idential growth occurred. The communities annexed lands from Arapahoe County in the vicinity of the Airport.
Some of the residential development encroached upon the Airport safety zones, including the inner and outer approach and turning safety zones. KAPA experienced an increase in operations during the s and 90s and shortly after, noise and safety concerns, and complaints increased from the surrounding communities. The Arapahoe County Public Airport Authority first published and adopted land use guidelines to address noise and safety compatibility in March of , as shown in Figure 2.
KAPA was the center of a controversy in the s when the Airport refused to allow sched- uled carrier service on small aircraft.
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The Airport and local jurisdictions were in agreement that scheduled air service was undesirable and they did not want to allow a service that would have take-off and landing priority over the existing customer base of private jets. KAPA also did not want to take on the expense of adding terminal and baggage services to meet the anticipated demands and expectations of scheduled passengers. The surrounding jurisdictions supported the Airport and feared a scheduled service would ultimately increase noise impacts.
DIA was also opposed to scheduled commercial service at KAPA, as it was planned to accommodate all the scheduled commercial air service capacity in the region.
The FAA, however, ruled that the refusal to allow scheduled service discriminated against a class of air carriers and therefore violated the terms of grant assurances previously signed by KAPA. The U. A provision attached to the Omnibus Bill of the U. Congress allowed general avi- ation reliever airports that are located within 25 nautical miles of a major airport and exceed a threshold number of operations to opt out of scheduled air carrier service.
The bill, written in general terms, is only applicable to KAPA among all general aviation airports nationwide. The three county commissioners serve on the ACPAA Board, which has five voting members including the commissioners and two additional residents of Arapahoe County and three non-voting members, who are the county commissioners of adjacent Douglas County. The ACPAA has the authority to issue bonds, acquire property including under condemnation, charge fees, lease land, construct and maintain facilities, enter into contracts with the state or federal government, and regulate use of the airport.
A large number of jurisdictions control land within the greater airport vicinity. The airport straddles the county line between Arapahoe and Douglas Counties, two major urban counties. Within each of these counties are a number of municipalities, as well as substantial amounts of unincorporated developed and vacant property. Unincorporated lands have been and can potentially be annexed into a number of these jurisdictions. The state of Colorado has little regulatory guidance on airport land use compatibility plan- ning. The Colorado Department of Transportation Aeronautics Division produces a report once every five years that reports on the economic impacts of airports in Colorado.
The airport planners reported a good working relationship with the Aeronautics Division staff on other matters, but indicated that they did not feel that the state agency provided useful guidance on airport land use planning issues. Centennial Airport, Englewood, Colorado 2.
Centennial Airport land use guidelines. There is also a large amount of residential development that has been approved but not yet developed on the south side of the airport. Some of these residential uses are also incompatible with safety guidelines because they are located in the safety zones. Many of these were developed in the s and early s at the same time that KAPA operations were expanding rapidly and before the ACPAA land use guidelines were produced. However, some new residential uses were developed in the last decade.
Noise Overall, most of the land use compatibility concerns expressed at KAPA, across the range of interviewees, focused on noise conflicts that result from residential uses that have been or are planned to be built in proximity to the Airport. As noted, there are 20 homes in the 65 and 70 DNL contours. In addition to residential uses, noise sensitive uses include three schools with the first located inside the 60 DNL contour, the second located on the 60 DNL contour line, and the third located between the 55 and 60 DNL contour.
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The NEM is shown on the following page in Figure 2. Ten years in the making, the study was complete and began circulation for comment in early The study projects that with no mitigation measures, residential units in the 65 and 70 DNL contours will increase by approximately five-fold and will more than double in the 60 DNL contour.
Arapahoe County has restricted new residential uses within the 60 DNL contour through its zoning ordinance. However, many of the surrounding jurisdictions do not follow these guidelines.